Ladle filler sand is a mixture of refractory raw material (silica sand & chromite sand) and it is filled in the nozzle of sliding gate system. Main purpose is to achieve a high free opening rate, avoiding the clogging when the sliding gate is opened. Most important factor is the sinter layer, is formed where the contact surface between molten steel and the upside of ladle filler sand. The sintered layer function is to avoid the penetration and solidification of molten steel, to avoid rising of ladle filler sand grains to molten steel. The most common materials are silica sand, chromite sand.
The main characteristics are given by raw materials properties such as grain type, grain size. The grain type and grain size distribution has an influence on packing factor that would be appropriate to promote the nozzle filler sand flowing when the sliding gate is opened.
And Carbon source is needed, in order to inhibit the sinter speed and lubricate the grains. The free opening rate is influenced by ladle refining process, such as ladle size, ladle capacity, well block (upper nozzle) size, tap-to-open time, steel grade, steel temperature, etc.
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